Association for the Chronic or/and Environmental Injury Illness   

Research states that MCS is a Physical Illness

Compiled by Professor Anne C. Steinemann and Amy L. Davis, University of Washington

This document lists scientific citations for peer-reviewed journal articles that support a physiological basis for MCS:

Abdel-Rahman A., Shetty A.K., Abou-Donia M.B. 2002. Disruption of the blood-brain barrier and neuronal cell death in cingulate cortex, dentate gyrus, thalamus, and hypothalamus in a rat model of Gulf-War syndrome. Neurobiology of Disease 10(3): 306-26.

Abel-Rahman A., Abou-Donia S., El-Masry E., Shetty A., Abou-Donia M. 2004. Stress and combined exposure to low doses of pyridostigmine bromide, DEET, and permethrin produce neurochemical and neuropathological alteration in cerebral cortex, hippocampus, and cerebellum. Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health Part A 67(2): 163-92.

Abdel-Rahman A., Dechkovskaia A.M., Goldstein L.B., Bullman S.H., Khan W., El-Masry E.M., Abou-Donia M.B. 2004. Neurological deficits induced by malathion, DEET, and permethrin, alone or in combination in adult rats. Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health Part A 67(4): 331-56.

Abou-Donia M.B 2003. Organophosphorus ester-induced chronic neurotoxicity. Archives of Environmental Health 58(8): 484-97.

Abou-Donia M.B., Wilmarth K.R., Abdel-Rahman A.A., Jenseen K.F., Oehme F.W., Kurt T.L. 1996. Increased neurotoxicity following concurrent exposure to pyridostigmine bromide, DEET, and chlorpyrifos. Fundamentals of Applied Toxicology 34(2): 201-22.

Abou-Donia M.B., Dechkovskaia A.M., Goldstein L.B., Shah D.U., Bullman S.L., Khan W.A. July 2002. Uranyl acetate-induced sensorimotor deficit and increased nitric oxide generation in the central nervous system in rats. Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior 72(4): 881-90.

Abou-Donia M.B., Dechkovskaia A.M., Goldstein B., Abdel-Rahman A., Bullman S.L., Khan W.A. 2004. Co-exposure to pyridostigmine bromide, DEET, and/or permethrin causes sensorimotor deficit and alterations in brain acetylcholinesterase activity. Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior 77(2): 253-62.

Abu-Qare A.W., Abou-Donia M.B. 2001. Combined exposure to sarin pyridostigmine bromide increased levels of rat urinary 3-nitrotyrosine and 8-hydroxy-2’deoxyguanosine, biomarkers of oxidative stress. Toxicology Letters 123(1): 51-58.

Abu-Qare A.W., Abou-Donia M.B. 2001. Biomarkers of apoptosis: release of cytochrome c, activation of caspase-3, induction of 8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine, increased 3-nitrotyrosine, and alteration of p53 gene. Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health Part B, Critical Reviews 4(3): 313-32.

Abu-Qare A.W., Abou-Donia M.B. 2008. In vitro metabolism and interactions of pyridostigmine bromide, N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide, and permethrin in human plasma and liver microsomal enzymes. Xenobiotica 38(3): 294-313.

Anderson R.C., Anderson J.H. 1999. Sensory irritation and multiple chemical sensitivity. Toxicology and Industrial Health 15(3-4): 339-45.

Ashford N.A. 1999. Low-level chemical sensitivity: implications for research and social policy. Toxicology and Industrial Health 15(3-4): 421-47.

Baldwin C.M. and Bell I.R. 1998. Increased cardiopulmonary disease risk in a community-based sample with chemical odor intolerance: implications for women’s health and health-care utilization. Archives of Environmental Health 1998 53(5): 347-53.

Baldwin C.M., Bell I.R., O’Rourke M.K. 1999. Odor sensitivity and respiratory complaint profiles in a community-based sample with asthma, hay fever, and chemical odor intolerance. Toxicology and Industrial Health 15(3-4): 403-9.

Bascom R., Meggs W.J., Framptom M., Hudnell K., Kilburn K., Kobal G., Medinsky M., Rea W. 1997. Neurogenic inflammation: with additional discussion of central and perceptual integration of nonneurogenic inflammation. Environmental Health Perspective 105 (Suppl. 2): 531-37.

Bell I.R., Miller C.S., and Schwartz G.E. 1992. An olfactory-limbic model of multiple chemical sensitivity syndrome: possible relationships to kindling and affective spectrum disorders. Biological Psychiatry 32(3): 218-42.

Bell I.R., Warg-Damiani L., Baldwin C.M., Walsh M.E., Schwartz G.E. 1998. Self-reported chemical sensitivity and wartime chemical exposures in Gulf War veterans with and without decreased global health ratings. Military Medicine 163(11): 725-32.

Bell I.R., Schwartz G.E., Peterson J.M. and Amend D. 1993. Self-reported illness from chemical odors in young adults without clinical syndromes or occupational exposures. Archives of Environmental Health. 48(1): 6-13.

Bell I.R., Schwartz G.E., Baldwin C.M., Hardin E.E. 1996. Neural sensitization and physiological markers in multiple chemical sensitivity. Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology 24(1), pt. 2: S39-S47.

Bell I.R., Baldwin C.M., Schwartz G.E.R. 2001. Sensitization studies in chemically intolerant individuals: implications for individual difference research. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 933:38-47.

Brandt-Rauf P.W., Andrews L.R., Schwarz-Miller J. 1991. Sick-hospital syndrome. Journal of Occupational Medicine 33(6): 737-39.

Bronstein A.C. 1995. Multiple chemical sensitivities—new paradigm needed. Journal of Toxicology: Clinical Toxicology 33(2): 93-94.

Brooks S.M., Weiss M.A., Bernstein I.L. 1985. Reactive airways dysfunction syndrome. Case reports of persistent airways hyperreactivity following high-level irritant exposures. Journal of Occupational Medicine 27(7): 473-76.

Brown-DeGagne A.M., McGlone J. 1999. Multiple chemical sensitivity: a test of the olfactory-limbic model. Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine 41(5): 366-77.

Buchwald D., Garrity D. 1994. Comparison of patients with chronic fatigue syndrome, fibromyalgia, and multiple chemical sensitivities. Archives of Internal Medicine 154(18): 2049-53.

Caress S.M., Steinemann A.C. 2003. A review of a two-phase population study of multiple chemical sensitivities. Environmental Health Perspectives 111(12): 1490-97.

Caress S.M., Steinemann A.C. 2004. Prevalence of multiple chemical sensitivities: A population-based study in the southeastern United States. American Journal of Public Health 94(5): 746-47.

Caress S.M., Steinemann A.C. 2009. Prevalence of fragrance sensitivity in the American population. Journal of Environmental Health 71(7): 46-50.

Caress S.M., Steinemann A.C. 2009. Asthma and chemical hypersensitivity: prevalence, etiology, and age of onset. Toxicology and Industrial Health 25(1): 71-78.

Caress S.M., Steinemann A.C. 2004. A national population study of the prevalence of multiple chemical sensitivity. Archives of Environmental Health 59(6): 300-305.

Caress S.M., Steinemann A.C. 2005. National prevalence of asthma and chemical hypersensitivity: an examination of potential overlap. Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine 47(5): 518-22.

Caress S.M., Steinemann A.C., Waddick C. 2002. Symptomatology and etiology of multiple chemical sensitivities in the southeastern United States. Archives of Environmental Health 57(5): 429-36.

Davidoff A.L., Keyl P.M., Meggs W.J. 1998. Development of multiple chemical sensitivities in laborers after acute gasoline fume exposure in an underground tunneling operation. Archives of Environmental Health 53(3):183-89.

DeRosa C.T., Hicks H.E., Ashizawa A.E., Pohl H.R., Mumtaz M.M. 2006. A regional approach to assess the impact of living in a chemical world. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 1076:829-38.

Donnay A.H. 1999. On the recognition of multiple chemical sensitivity in medical literature and government policy. International Journal of Toxicology 18(6): 383-92.

Elberling J., Linneberg A., Dirksen A., Johansen J.D., Frølund L., Madsen F., et al. 2005. Mucosal symptoms elicited by fragrance products in a population-based sample in relation to atopy and bronchial hyper-reactivity. Clinical and Experimental Allergy 35(1): 75-81.

Farrow A., Taylor H., Northstone K., Golding J. 2003. Symptoms of mothers and infants related to total volatile organic compounds in household products. Archives of Environmental Health 58(10): 633-41.

Fernandez M., Bell I.R., Schwartz G.E. 1999. EEG sensitization during chemical exposure in women with and without chemical sensitivity of unknown etiology. Toxicology and Industrial Health 15(3-4): 305-12.

Gibson P.R., Elms A.N., Ruding L.A. 2003. Perceived treatment efficacy for conventional and alternative therapies reported by persons with multiple chemical sensitivity. Environmental Health Perspectives 111(12): 1498-1504.

Gilbert M.E. 1995. Repeated exposure to lindane leads to behavioral sensitivities and facilitates electrical kindling. Neurotoxicolgy and Teratology 17(2): 131-41.

Greene G.J., Kipen H.M. 2002. The vomeronasal organ and chemical sensitivity: a hypothesis. Environmental Health Perspectives 110 (Suppl 4): 655-61.

Haley R.W., Billecke S., La Du B.N. 1999. Association of low PON1 type Q (type A) arylesterase activity with neurologic symptoms complexes in Gulf War veterans. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 157(3): 227-33.

Heuser G., Mena I., Alamos F. 1994. NeuroSPECT findings in patients exposed to neurotoxic chemicals. Toxicology and Industrial Health 10: 561-71.
Jammes Y., DelPierre S., DelVolgo M.J., Humbert-Tena C., Burnet, H. 1998. Long-term exposure of adults to outdoor air pollution is associated with increased airway obstruction and higher prevalence of bronchial hyperresponsiveness. Archives of Environmental Health 53(6): 372-77.

Johansson A., Löwhagen O., Millqvist E., Bende M. 2002. Capsaicin inhalation test for identification of sensory hyperreactivity. Respiratory Medicine 96(9): 731-35.

Joffres M.R., Sampalli T., Fox R.A. 2005. Physiologic and symptomatic responses to low-level substances in individuals with and without chemical sensitivities; a randomized controlled blinded pilot booth study. Environmental Health Perspectives 113(9): 1178-83.

Kelly K.J., Prezant D.J. 2005. Bronchial hyperreactivity and other inhalation lung injuries in rescue/recovery workers after the world trade center collapse. Critical Care Medicine 33 (Suppl 1): S102-S106.

Kilburn K.H. 2003. Effects of hydrogen sulfide in neurobehavioral function. Southern Medical Journal 90(10): 997-1106.

Kilburn K.H. 1999. Measuring the effects of chemicals in the brain. Archives of Environmental Health 54(3): 150.

Koch F., Hughes J.M. 1998. Perioperative care of environmentally sensitive patients. AORN Journal 68(3): 375-82.

Lax M.B., Henneberger P.K. 1995. Patients with multiple chemical sensitivities in an occupational health clinic: presentation and follow-up. Archives of Environmental Health 50(6): 425-31.

Lieberman A.D., Craven M.R. 1998. Reactive Intestinal Dysfunction Syndrome (RIDS) caused by chemical exposures. Archives of Environmental Health 53(5): 354-58.

LoVecchio F., Fulton S.E. 2001. Ventricular fibrillation following inhalation of Glade Air Freshener. European Journal of Emergency Medicine 8(2): 153-54.

Mackness B., Durrington P.N., Mackness M.I. 2000. Low paraoxonase in Persian Gulf War Veterans self-reporting Gulf War Syndrome. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 276(2): 729-33.

MacPhail R.C. 2001. Episodic exposures to chemicals: What relevance to chemical intolerance? Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 933:103-11.

McKeown-Eyssen G., Baines C., Cole D.E.C., Riley N., Tyndale R.F., Marshall L, Jazmaji V. 2004. Case-control study of genotypes in multiple chemical sensitivity: CYP2D6, NAT1, NAT2, PON1, PON2 and MTHFR. International Journal of Epidemiology 33(5): 971-78.

Mckeown-Eyssen G.E., Baines C.J., Marshall L.M., Jazmaji V., Sokoloff E.R. 2001. Multiple chemical sensitivity: Discriminant validity of case definitions. Archives of Environmental Health 56(5): 406-12.

Meggs W.J., Cleveland C.H. Jr. 1993. Rhinolaryngoscopic examination of patients with the multiple chemical sensitivity syndrome. Archives of Environmental Health 48(1): 14-18.

Meggs W.J., Dunn K.A., Bloch R.M., Goodman P.E., Davidoff A.L. 1996. Prevalence and nature of allergy and chemical sensitivity in a general population. Archives of Environmental Health 51(4): 275-82.

Meggs W.J. 1993. Neurogenic inflammation and sensitivity to environmental chemicals. Environmental Health Perspectives 101(3): 234-38.

Meggs W.J. 1995. Neurogenic switching: a hypothesis for a mechanism for shifting the site of inflammation in allergy and chemical sensitivity. Environmental Health Perspectives 103: 54-56.

Meggs W.J. 1999. Mechanisms of allergy and chemical sensitivity. Toxicology and Industrial Health 15(3): 331-38.

Meggs W.J. 1997. Hypothesis for induction and propagation of chemical sensitivity based on biopsy studies. Environmental Health Perspectives 105 (Suppl 2): 473-78.

Meggs W.J. 1994. RADS and RUDS—the toxic induction of asthma and rhinitis. Clinical Toxicology 32(5): 487-501.

Meggs W.J. 1995. Multiple chemical sensitivities—chemical sensitivity as a symptom of airway inflammation. Journal of Toxicology. Clinical Toxicology 33(2): 107-10.

Miller C.S., Gammage R.B., Jankovic J.T. 1999. Exacerbation of chemical sensitivity: a case study. Toxicology and Industrial Health 15(3-4): 398-402.

Miller C., Ashford N., Doty R., Lamielle M. Otto D., Rahill A., Wallace L. 1997. Empirical approaches for the investigation of toxicant-induced loss of tolerance. Environmental Health Perspectives 102 (Suppl 2): 515-19.

Miller C.S. and Mitzel H.C. 1995. Chemical sensitivity attributed to pesticide exposure versus remodeling. Archives of Environmental Health 50(2): 119-29.
Miller C.S. and Prihoda T.J. 1999. The Environmental Exposure and Sensitivity Inventory (EESI): a standardized approach for measuring chemical intolerances for research and clinical applications. Toxicology and Industrial Health 15(3/4): 370-85.

Miller C.S. 2001. The compelling anomaly of chemical intolerance. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 933:1-23.

Miller C.S., Prihoda T.J. 1999. A controlled comparison of symptoms and chemical intolerances reported by Gulf War veterans, implant recipients, and persons with multiple chemical sensitivity. Toxicology and Industrial Health 15(3/4): 386-97.

Miller C.S. 1999. Are we on the threshold of a new theory of disease? Toxicant-induced loss of tolerance and its relationship to addiction and abdiction. Toxicology and Industrial Health 15(3/4): 284-94.

Miller C.S. 1992. Possible models for multiple chemical sensitivity: conceptual issues and the role of the limbic system. Toxicology and Industrial Health 8(4): 181-90.

Miller C.S. 1996. Chemical sensitivity: symptom, syndrome or mechanism for disease? Toxicology 111(1-3): 69-86.

Miller C.S. 1997. Toxicant-induced loss of tolerance—an emerging theory of disease? Environmental Health Perspectives 105 (Suppl 2): 445-53. Miller C.S. 2001. Toxicant-induced loss of tolerance. Addiction 96(1): 115-39.

Millqvist E., Bengtsson U., Lowhagen O. 1999. Provocations with perfume in the eyes induce airway symptom in patients with sensory hyperreactivity. Allergy 54(5): 495-99.

Millqvist E. 2005. Changes in levels of nerve growth factor in nasal secretions after capsaicin inhalation in patients with airway symptoms from scents and chemicals. Environmental Health Perspectives 113(7): 849-52.

Österberg K., Ørbæk P., Karlson B., Åkesson B., Bergendorf U. 2003. Annoyance and performance during the experimental chemical challenge of subjects with multiple chemical sensitivity. Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health 29(1): 40-50.

Overstreet D.H., Djuric V. 2001. A genetic rat model of cholinergic hypersensitivity: implications for chemical intolerance, chronic fatigue, and asthma. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 933:92-102.

Pall M.L. 2002. NMDA sensitization and stimulation by peroxynitrite, nitric oxide, and organic solvents as the mechanism of chemical sensitivity in MCS. The FASEB Journal 16(11): 1407-17.

Pall M.L. 2003. Elevated nitric oxide/peroxynitrite theory of multiple chemical sensitivity: central role of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors in the sensitivity mechanism. Environmental Health Perspectives 111(12): 1461-64.

Pall M.L., Anderson J.H. 2004. The vanilloid receptor as a putative target of diverse chemicals in multiple chemical sensitivity. Archives of Environmental Health 59(7): 363-75.

Pall M.L. 2007. Nitric oxide synthase partial uncoupling as a key switching mechanism for the NO/ONOO-cycle. Medical Hypotheses 69(4): 821-25.

Pall M.L. 2001. Common etiology of posttraumatic stress disorder, fibromyalgia, chronic fatigue syndrome and multiple chemical sensitivity via elevated nitric oxide/peroxynitrite. Medical Hypotheses 57(2): 139-45.

Pall M.L., Satterlee J.D. 2001. Elevated nitric oxide/peroxynitrite mechanism for the common etiology of multiple chemical sensitivity, chronic fatigue syndrome, and posttraumatic stress disorder. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 933:323-29.

Parkinson D.K., Bromet S., Cohen L.O., Dunn M.A., Dew C. 1990. Health effects of long-term solvent exposure among women in blue-collar occupations. American Journal of Industrial Medicine 17(6): 661-75.

Perhall K.E. 2003. Contact and chemical sensitivities in the hospital environment. Otolaryngologic Clinics of North America 36(5): 1021-34.

Rea W.J., Ross G.H. 1989. Food and chemicals as environmental incitants. The Nurse Practitioner 14(9): 17.

Rea W.J., Pan Y., Johnson A.R. 1991. Clearing of toxic volatile hydrocarbons from humans. Boletin de la Asociacion Medica de Puerto Rico 83(7): 321-24.

Rea W.J., Ross G.H., Johnson A.R., Smiley R.E., Sprague D.E., Fenyves E.J., Samadi N. 1991. Confirmation of chemical sensitivity by means of double-blind inhalant challenge of toxic volatile chemicals. Boletin de la Asociacion Medica de Puerto Rico 83(9): 389-93.

Rogers W.R., Miller C.S., Bunegin L. 1999. A rat model of neurobehavioral sensitization to toluene. Toxicology and Industrial Health 15(3-4): 356-69.

Ross G.H., Rea W.J., Johnson A.R., Hickey D.C., Simon T.R. 1999. Neurotoxicity in single photon emission computed tomography brain scans of patients reporting chemical sensitivities. Toxicology and Industrial Health 15(3-4): 415-20.

Ross G.H. 1997. Clinical characteristics of chemical sensitivity: an illustrative case history of asthma and MCS. Environmental Health Perspectives 105 (Suppl 2) 437-41.

Rossi J. 3rd. 1996. Sensitization induced by kindling and kindling-related phenomena as a model for multiple chemical sensitivity. Toxicology 111(1-3): 87-100.

Rowat S.C. 1998. Integrated defense system overlaps as a disease model: with examples for multiple chemical sensitivity. Environmental Health Perspectives 106 (Suppl 1): 85-109.

Schnakenberg E., Fabig K.-R., Stannula M., Stroble N., Lustig M., Fabig N., Schloot W. 2007. A cross-sectional study of self-reported chemical-related sensitivity is associated with gene variants of drug-metabolizing enzymes. Environmental Health 6:6-16.

Sykes R. 2006. Somatoform disorders in DSM-IV: mental or physical disorders? Journal of Psychosomatic Research 60(4): 341-44.

Ternesten-Hasseus E., Bende M., Millqvist E. 2002. CME: Increased capsaicin cough sensitivity in patients with multiple chemical sensitivity. Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine 44(11): 1012-17.

Thrasher J.D., Broughton A., Madison R. 1990. Immune activation and autoantibodies in humans with long-term inhalation exposure to formaldehyde. Archives of Environmental Health 45(4): 217-23.

Yu I.T., Lee N.L., Zhang X.H., Chen W.Q., Lam Y.T., Wong T.W. 2004. Occupational exposure to mixtures of organic solvents increases the risk of neurological symptoms among printing workers in Hong Kong. Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine 46(4): 323-30.

Zibrowski L.M., Robertson J.M. 2006. Olfactory sensitivity in medical laboratory workers occupationally exposed to organic solvent mixtures. Occupational Medicine 56(1): 51-54.

Ziem G. 1999. Profile of patients with chemical injury and sensitivity, part II. International Journal of Toxicology 18(6):401-9.

Ziem G., McTamney J. 1997. Profile of patients with chemical injury and sensitivity. Environmental Health Perspectives 105(Suppl 2): 417-36.

Appendix: Related Articles

Anderson R.C. and Anderson J.H. 1997. Toxic effects of air freshener emissions. Archives of Environmental Health 52(6): 433-41.

Anderson R.C. and Anderson J.H. 1998. Acute toxic effects of fragrance products. Archives of Environmental Health 53(2): 138-46.

Anderson R.C. and Anderson J.H. 2000. Respiratory toxicity of fabric softener emissions. Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health Part A 60(2): 121-36.

Anderson R.C. and Anderson J.H. 1999. Acute respiratory effects of diaper emissions. Archives of Environmental Health 54(5): 353-58.

Anderson R. and Anderson J. 2003. Acute toxicity of marking pen emissions. Journal of Toxicity and Environmental Health Part A 66(9): 829-45.

Anderson R.C., Anderson J.H. 2000. Respiratory toxicity of mattress emissions in mice. Archives of Environmental Health 55(1): 38-43.

Anderson R.C. and Anderson J.H. 1999. Respiratory toxicity in mice exposed to mattress covers. Archives of Environmental Health 54(3): 202-9.

Bridges B. 2002. Fragrance: emerging health and environmental concerns. Flavour and Fragrance Journal 17(5): 361-71.

Brown A.E. 1999. Developing a pesticide policy for individuals with multiple chemical sensitivity: considerations for institutions. Toxicology and Industrial Health 15(3/4): 432-37.

Cooper S.D., Raymer J.H., Pellizzari E.D., Thomas K.W. 1995. The identification of polar organic compounds found in consumer products and their toxicological properties. Journal of Exposure Analysis and Environmental Epidemiology 5(1): 57-75.

Destaillats H., Lunden M.M., Singer B.C., Coleman B.K., Hodgson A.T., Weschler C.J., Nazaroff W.W. 2006. Indoor secondary pollutants from household product emissions in the presence of ozone: a bench-scale chamber study. Environmental Science and Technology 40(14): 4421-28.

Duty S.M., Ackerman R.M., Calafat A.M., Hauser R. 2005. Personal care product use predicts urinary concentrations of some phthalate monoesters. Environmental Health Perspectives 113(11): 1530-35.

Muir T. and Zegarac M. 2001. Societal costs of exposure to toxic substances: economic and health costs of four case studies that are candidates for environmental causation. Environmental Health Perspectives 109 (Suppl 6): 885-903.

Steinemann A.C. 2009. Fragranced consumer products and undisclosed ingredients. Environmental Impact Assessment Review 29(1): 32-38.

Steinemann A. 2004. Human exposure, health hazards, and environmental regulations. Environmental Impact Assessment Review 24(7/8): 695-710.
Weschler C.J. 2009. Changes in indoor pollutants since the 1950s. Atmospheric Environment 43(1): 153-69.

Ziem G. 2005. Pesticide spraying and health effects. Environmental Health Perspectives 113(3): A150. (Letter to the editor)

Ziem G. 1999. Understanding patients with multiple chemical sensitivity. American Family Physician 59(8): 2101. (Letter to the editor)

Copyright:
Reprinted with personal permission. This document may not be republished in whole or part without the permission of Professor Anne C. Steinemann.